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American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status (PS) classification system:

Adapted from: Current Definitions and ASA-Approved Examples#

ASA PS ClassificationDefinitionAdult Examples, Including, but not limited to:Pediatric Examples, Including but not limited to:
ASA IA normal healthy patientHealthy, non-smoking, no or minimal alcohol use
ASA IIA patient with mild systemic diseaseMild diseases only without substantive functional limitations. Current smoker, social alcohol drinker, pregnancy, obesity (30<BMI<40), well-controlled DM/HTN, mild lung diseaseAsymptomatic congenital cardiac disease, well controlled dysrhythmias, asthma without exacerbation, well controlled epilepsy, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, abnormal BMI percentile for age, mild/moderate OSA, oncologic state in remission, autism with mild limitations
ASA IIIA patient with severe systemic diseaseSubstantive functional limitations; One or more moderate to severe diseases. Poorly controlled DM or HTN, COPD, morbid obesity (BMI ≥40), active hepatitis, alcohol dependence or abuse, implanted pacemaker, moderate reduction of ejection fraction, ESRD undergoing regularly scheduled dialysis, history (>3 months) of MI, CVA, TIA, or CAD/stents.Uncorrected stable congenital cardiac abnormality, asthma with exacerbation, poorly controlled epilepsy, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, morbid obesity, malnutrition, severe OSA, oncologic state, renal failure, muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis, history of organ transplantation, brain/spinal cord malformation, symptomatic hydrocephalus, premature infant PCA <60 weeks, autism with severe limitations, metabolic disease, difficult airway, long term parenteral nutrition. Full term infants <6 weeks of age.
ASA IVA patient with severe systemic disease that is a constant threat to lifeRecent (<3 months) MI, CVA, TIA or CAD/stents, ongoing cardiac ischemia or severe valve dysfunction, severe reduction of ejection fraction, shock, sepsis, DIC, ARD or ESRD not undergoing regularly scheduled dialysisSymptomatic congenital cardiac abnormality, congestive heart failure, active sequelae of prematurity, acute hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, shock, sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, ventilator dependence, endocrinopathy, severe trauma, severe respiratory distress, advanced oncologic state.
ASA VA moribund patient who is not expected to survive without the operationRuptured abdominal/thoracic aneurysm, massive trauma, intracranial bleed with mass effect, ischemic bowel in the face of significant cardiac pathology or multiple organ/system dysfunctionMassive trauma, intracranial hemorrhage with mass effect, patient requiring ECMO, respiratory failure or arrest, malignant hypertension, decompensated congestive heart failure, hepatic encephalopathy, ischemic bowel or multiple
ASA VIA declared brain-dead patient whose organs are being removed for donor purposes

ARD = acute respiratory distress; BMI = body mass index; CAD = coronary artery disease; CVA = cerebrovascular accident; DIC = disseminated intravascular coagulation; DM = diabets mellitus; ECMO = extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; HTN = hypertension; MI = myocardial infartcion; OSA = obstructive sleep apnea; PCA = patient-controlled analgesia; TIA = transient ischemic accident


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